VLI 1(1): Koizumi (2012)

Relationships Between Text Length and Lexical Diversity Measures: Can We Use Short Texts of Less than 100 Tokens?
Rie Koizumi
Tokiwa University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.koizumi
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Abstract
Lexical diversity (LD) measures have been known to be sensitive to the length of the text, and numerous revised LD measures have been proposed. This study aims to identify LD measures that are least affected by text length and can be used for the analysis of short L2 texts (50-200 tokens). This study compares the type-token ratio, Guiraud index, D, and measure of textual lexical diversity (MTLD) to assess their degree of susceptibility to text length. Spoken texts of 200 tokens from 20 L2 English learners at the lower-intermediate-level were divided into segments of 50 to 200 tokens and the text length impact was examined. It was found that MTLD was least affected by text length, and that it should be used with texts of at least 100 tokens.

Keywords
lexical diversity; text length; type-token ratio; Guiraud index; D; measure of textual lexical diversity (MTLD); speaking performance.

Citation
Koizumi, R.(2012).Relationships between text length and lexical diversity measures: Can we use short texts of less than 100 tokens? Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 6069. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.koizumi

VLI 1(1): Stewart (2012)

A Multiple-Choice Test of Active Vocabulary Knowledge
Jeffrey Stewart
Kyushu Sangyo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.stewart
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Abstract
Most researchers distinguish between receptive (passive) and productive (active) word knowledge. Most vocabulary tests employed in second language acquisition (SLA), such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) and Vocabulary Size Test (VST), test receptive knowledge. This is unfortunate, as the multiple-choice format employed on most receptive tests inflates estimates of vocabulary size, and there are clear theoretical advantages to focusing instead on productive knowledge, which is associated with greater strength of knowledge as well as written and oral communication skills. This is in large part due to the logistical problems associated with such tests, as the full-word answers given must either be entered online or handmarked. This paper will describe a multiple-choice format test of active vocabulary knowledge, in which learners confirm their knowledge of an English word by selecting its first letter. As there are 25 possible options, odds of guessing the correct answer by chance are reduced to 0.04. Findings of the study include that word difficulty estimates and scores are highly correlated to those of conventional, full-word active tests (0.90), and that test reliability is higher on the proposed format than on that of a receptive test of the same words.

Keywords
vocabulary acquisition; productive vocabulary knowledge; language testing.

Citation
Stewart, J.(2012). A multiple-choice test of active vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 53-59. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.stewart

VLI 1(1): Mochizuki (2012)

Four Empirical Vocabulary Test Studies in the Three Dimensional Framework
Masamich Mochizuki
Reitaku University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.mochizuki
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Abstract
In this paper I would like to briefly overview vocabulary testing literature and discuss the four empirical studies conducted by Jeffrey Stewart, Rie Koizumi, Aaron Batty, and Tatsuo Iso, after placing them in the framework of the three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge: size, depth, and lexical accessibility.

Keywords
three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge: size, depth, and lexical accessibility; passive/receptive vocabulary knowledge; active/productive vocabulary knowledge.

Citation
Mochizuki, M.(2012).Four empirical vocabulary test studies in the three dimensional framework. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 4452.doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.mochizuki

VLI 1(1): Anderson (2012)

Utilizing Student-Generated Pictures for Formative Vocabulary Instruction
Charles J. Anderson
Kyushu Sangyo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.anderson
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Abstract
Contemporary vocabulary learning strategies focus on the learner. This may overlook the effect good classroom instruction, such as formative feedback, can have on acquisition. Formative feedback is strongly correlated with positive learning outcomes because it provides explicit information the learner can use to move beyond what is known and towards a learning goal. Drawing pictures of target vocabulary is one activity that supports vocabulary acquisition while also promoting more formative feedback. Research indicates that the drawing of pictures can deepen understanding and improve recall. Furthermore, students’ illustrations also facilitate the delivery of more specific feedback than more conventional vocabulary acquisition strategies, provided teachers use them effectively. This activity aids less proficient university students by facilitating better feedback and deepening existing vocabulary knowledge and improving recall.

Keywords
vocabulary learning; vocabulary acquisition; pictures; drawing; illustration; learning strategies.

Citation
Anderson, C. J. (2012).Utilizing student-generated pictures for formative vocabulary instruction. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 37-43. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.anderson

VLI 1(1): Sato & Batty (2012)

A Study of Learners’ Intuitions Behind the Use of Utterance Verbs in English
Yoshiaki Sato and Aaron Batty
Keio University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.sato.batty
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Abstract
Verbs of utterance are some of the most fundamental verbs in the English language, yet their usage patterns are exceptionally diverse. Learners of English should be able to use these words correctly and comfortably, but without an understanding of their core meanings acquisition of their various patterns of use can be daunting. The present research investigates the differences between English learners’ and native speakers’ intuitions regarding the utterance verbs ‘‘speak,’’ ‘‘talk,’’ ‘‘say,’’ and ‘‘tell.’’ The participants were 80 users of English in four proficiency groups (Low, Mid, High, and native). The participants were polled via questionnaire on their intuitions regarding various uses of the four utterance verbs. Data were analyzed and compared with descriptive statistics and t tests. Although the intuitions of learners of increasing proficiency increasingly resembled those of NS, the verbs ‘‘speak’’ and ‘‘talk’’ posed special problems, indicating a lack of understanding of these verbs’ core meanings. Language educators are recommended to pay particular attention to these verbs’ more idiomatic uses (e.g. ‘‘talk politics’’) to address these deficiencies.

Keywords
utterance verbs; semantically-interrelated verbs; division of labor; constructional ranges; core meaning; lexical hypothesis; lexical acquisition; systematic teaching.

Citation
Sato, Y.& Batty, A. (2012).A study of learners’ intuitions behind the use of utterance verbs in English. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 2936.doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.sato.batty

VLI 1(1): Brown (2012)

The Frequency Model of Vocabulary Learning and Japanese Learners
Dale Brown
Nanzan University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.brown
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Abstract
The frequency model of vocabulary learning, the idea that words are learnt broadly in order of their frequency, is routinely applied in language teaching, testing and research. There has, however, been little research actually confirming it. This paper reports on a small-scale study which investigated the extent to which the vocabulary knowledge of a group of Japanese university students follows the model. Forty-nine low intermediate proficiency participants took a 100-item Yes/No test containing 20 words from five frequency bands. It was found that, as expected, for the group as a whole, knowledge of the words was related to frequency, with the proportion of words known falling as frequency declined. Following Milton’s study, however, an analysis of the results of individual participants revealed that around 20% showed different patterns of knowledge and did not follow the frequency model. One question, however, is whether the frequency information on which the Yes/No test is based is the best approximation of these learners’ experience of English. A re-examination of the data in terms of JACET8000 levels found that once more the group as a whole followed the frequency model, and in addition that more of the individual participants conformed to the model. The study thus demonstrates the importance of using frequency data that is relevant to the learners in question and provides confirmation that frequency is a key determiner in the learning of vocabulary. It seems that teachers can reasonably make use of frequency information to support their students’ learning.

Keywords
vocabulary learning; word frequency; frequency model; JACET8000.

Citation
Brown, D.(2012).The frequency model of vocabulary learning and Japanese learners. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 2028. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.brown

VLI 1(1): Barfield (2012)

Lexical Development and Learners’ Practices in a Content-based Learning Course
Andy Barfield
Chuo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.barfield
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Abstract
Developing a better understanding of the beliefs and practices that students hold concerning their English vocabulary development should
assist lexical instruction and learning. To explore different connections between lexical development and learner autonomy, changes and developments over time in the vocabulary practices and goals of several students engaged in content-based learning projects through English were tracked. After reconstructing their vocabulary histories, participants kept dedicated vocabulary notes and reflections. This study examines the developments that one individual goes through over time in his vocabulary practices and goals, in order to better understand processes of lexical restructuring and network building. From this analysis, connections to a Vygotskian view of conceptual development are drawn, particularly with regard towhat such a model may indicate about learners’ situated lexical development.

Keywords
learner autonomy; lexical development; vocabulary histories; vocabulary practices; content-based learning; conceptual development; lexical restructuring.

Citation
Barfield, A.(2012).Lexical development and learners’ practices in a content-based learning course. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 1019. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.barfield