VLI 9(2): Elgort (2020)

Vocabulary Learning and Assessment: A Commentary on Four Studies for JALT Vocabulary SIG
Irina Elgort
Victoria University of Wellington
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.elgort
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Abstract
Four papers by Chie Ogawa, Haidee Thomson, Michael Holsworthm and Darrell Wilkinson were presented in the Vocabulary Learning and Assessment session at the Eighth Annual Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT) Vocabulary Special Interest Group (SIG) Symposium, at the University of Niigata, Japan, in May 2020. The papers raised methodological questions, proposed approaches to assessing spoken and written word knowledge and fluency, and presented some experimental findings. It is my pleasure to discuss these papers in terms of the ideas proposed by the four researchers, their implementation and potential future directions.

Citation
Elgort, I. (2020). Vocabulary learning and assessment: A commentary on four studies for JALT Vocabulary SIG. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 9 (2), 75–88. https://doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.elgort

VLI 9(2): Wilkinson (2020)

Deliberate Vocabulary Learning from Word Cards
Darrell Wilkinson
Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.wilkinson
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Abstract
While word cards are a widely supported method of deliberately studying foreign language vocabulary, there is a surprising lack of research-based evidence supporting them. This paper first reviews some of the key literature on word cards and then briefly describes two experiments concerning word card methodology. The first experiment described in this paper examined the learning outcomes of making word cards while the second experiment compared the use of self-made word cards with premade cards. The results of the first study indicated that the simple process of making word cards results in significant short-term vocabulary learning, but this new knowledge is sensitive to attrition if no further study is carried out soon after making the cards. The results of the second experiment indicated that while both methods are effective in the short and long-term, learners may be better studying from premade cards. Taken together, the results offer support for the use of word cards for foreign language vocabulary learning.

Citation
Wilkinson, D. (2020). Deliberate vocabulary learning from word cards. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 9 (2), 69–74. https://doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.wilkinson

VLI 9(2): Thomson (2020)

The Challenges of Measuring Multi-Word Expression Use in Conversation
Haidee Thomson
Hokusei Gakuen University and Victoria University of Wellington
doi: https://doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.thomson
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Abstract
This article introduces three important challenges and possible solutions when using spoken dialogue to measure the use of specific multi-word expressions. The first challenge is deciding whether to count precise and accurate use of target expressions only or whether to extend the count to include variation. The second challenge requires addressing the indirect nature of dialogue as a testing method. The third challenge is organizing data and preparing ways to clearly identify speakers within the dialogue. These challenges are illustrated with examples and potential solutions from my recent research investigating spoken use of multi-word expressions.

Keywords
three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge: size, depth, and lexical accessibility; passive/receptive vocabulary knowledge; active/productive vocabulary knowledge.

Citation
Thomson, H. (2020). The challenges of measuring multi-word expression use in conversation. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 9 (2), 63–68. https://doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.thomson

VLI 9(2): Holsworth (2020)

Assessing Low-level Cognitive Processes of Word Recognition
Michael Holsworth
Kyoto Sangyo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.holsworth
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Abstract
A fundamental skill required for vocabulary development is word recognition ability. According to Perfetti (1985), word recognition ability relies on low-level cognitive processing skill to be automatic and efficient in order for cognitive resources to be allocated to high-level processes such as inferencing and schemata activation needed for reading comprehension. The low-level processes include orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, and phonological awareness. These low-level processes must be efficient, fluent, and automatic in second language readers in order for them to achieve the ultimate goal of reading comprehension. This article briefly describes the concept of word recognition, its relation to vocabulary, and three tests that were designed to measure the three components of word recognition (orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge) in a longitudinal study that investigated the effects of word recognition training on reading comprehension.

Keywords
reading, word recognition, orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, phonological awareness, testing

Citation
Holsworth, M. (2020). Assessing low-level cognitive processes of word recognition. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 9(2), 55–62. https://doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.holsworth

VLI 9(2): Ogawa (2020)

Teaching Ideas for Improving Oral Performance through Formulaic Language Instruction
Chie Ogawa
Kyoto Sangyo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.ogawa
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Abstract
This article suggests three teaching ideas to help L2 learners improve
speaking performances through form-focused instruction using formulaic
language. Formulaic language is considered an effective way to
foster speaking fluency because prefabricated chunks are faster to retrieve
than constructing sentences word by word (Wray, 2002). In spite
of the benefits of learning formulaic language in L2 learning theory,
few empirical studies were found which examined the effects of formulaic
language instruction in intact classrooms, in particular in the EFL
(English as a Foreign Language) context. By introducing some effective
classroom tasks to foster L2 learners’ speaking fluency focusing on
formulaic language in this article, the author emphasizes the need for
empirical research involving EFL learners.

Keywords
speaking, formulaic language, automatization, proceduralization, focus on form, fluency, CALF, instructed SLA

Citation
Ogawa, C. (2020). Teaching ideas for improving oral performance through formulaic language instruction. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 9(2), 48–54. https://doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.ogawa

VLI 9(2): Nakata (2020)

Vocabulary and Computer Technology: A Commentary on Four Studies for JALT Vocabulary SIG
Tatsuya Nakata
Rikkyo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.nakata
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Abstract
Four papers by Clint Denison and Imogen Custance, Louis Lafleur, James Rogers, and Andrew Obermeier will be presented at the Eighth Annual JALT Vocabulary SIG Symposium in Tokyo, Japan, on September 20, 2020. The topics covered in the four papers are vocabulary learning using online student-created vocabulary lists, development of a flashcard program that manipulates the review schedule and question format, creation of a list of multi-word units based on corpora, and examination of the acquisition of declarative and tacit vocabulary knowledge from deliberate computer-assisted learning. This commentary briefly summarizes each study and offers suggestions for future research. All of the four studies exhibit how computer technology can be used to facilitate vocabulary research, teaching, and learning.

Citation
Nakata, T. (2020). Vocabulary and computer technology: A commentary on four studies for JALT Vocabulary SIG. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 9 (2), 39–47. https://doi.org/10.7820/vli.v09.2.nakata