VLI 2(1): Stubbe (2013)

Comparing Regression versus Correction Formula Predictions of Passive Recall Test Scores from Yes-No Test Results
Raymond Stubbe
Kyushu Sangyo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v02.1.stubbe
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Abstract
A novel form of scoring formula for self-report yesno vocabulary tests
was presented in Stubbe and Stewart, based on multiple regression
models that use both real-word and pseudoword reports to predict
subsequent scores on a test of passive recall knowledge (as measured by
L2 to L1 translations). The aim of the present study is to determine how
well passive recall test scores can be predicted from yes-no test results
adjusted using two methods: (1) regression formulas versus (2) the four
established correction for guessing formulas outlined in Huibregtse,
Admiraal, and Meara: h-f, cfg, Δm and lsdt. After taking a yes-no test
followed by a passive recall test of the same 96 real-words, the sample of
Japanese university students (N 431) was split into two groups of
comparable proficiency (A and B). The original Stubbe and Stewart
regression formula was compared to the four correction formulas by
analyzing their application with the Group A. Despite having a lower
correlation with passive recall test scores than one of the correction
formulas, the predicted scores produced were significantly closer. A new
regression formula was then created using the Group A’s test results and
this was used to predict translation test scores on Group B, along with the
four correction formulas. As the resulting predictions were superior to
those of any of the correction formulas, and not significantly different
from the actual passive recall test scores, plus the correlation with these
translation test scores was the highest (0.845), it was concluded that
regression formulas produced the best predictions.

Citation
Stubbe, R. (2013). Comparing regression versus correction formula predictions of passive recall test scores from yesno test results. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 2 (1), 39-46. doi: 10.7820/vli.v02.1.stubbe

VLI 2(1): Nation (2013)

Commentary on Four Studies for JALT Vocabulary SIG
Paul Nation
LALS, Victoria University of Wellington
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v02.1.nation
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Abstract
Four papers by Tomoko Ishii, Emilie Masson, Atsushi Mizumoto and
Rachael Ruegg will be presented in morning session of the Second
Annual JALT Vocabulary SIG Vocabulary Symposium in Fukuoka, Japan
on July 2, 2013. As discussant, it is my pleasure to comment upon each
manuscript. These four lexical researchers originate from all over Japan:
Tokyo, Fukuoka, Osaka and Akita. The range of their lexical topics is
almost as wide: semantically related words; loanword usage difficulties;
self-efficacy and autonomy in vocabulary learning; and, lexical feedback
on writing. After commenting on each paper in turn, I shall present a few
suggestions for their future research.

Citation
Nation, I.S.P. (2013). Commentary on four studies for JALT Vocabulary SIG. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 2 (1), 32-38. doi: 10.7820/vli.v02.1.nation

VLI 2(1): Ruegg (2013)

A Comparison of Lexical Feedback on Writing Received from Peers and a Teacher
Rachael Ruegg
Akita International University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v02.1.ruegg
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Abstract
While a vast number of studies have compared feedback from different
sources, few studies if any have compared feedback on lexis from different
sources. It is therefore unclear whether the amount or type of feedback
given by peers is comparable to that given by a teacher. This study
considers feedback on lexical errors in writing as a method of incidental
vocabulary instruction and compares lexical feedback given by peers and
a teacher over a period of one academic year. While it was found that the
teacher gave significantly more feedback on word choice than the peers
did, there was no significant difference between the amount of feedback
on word use, or the total amount of lexical feedback given by peers and
the teacher. It was also found that both peers and the teacher gave a
considerable amount of feedback on word use and much less on word
choice. If written feedback on writing is to be effective as a form of
incidental vocabulary instruction, it is suggested that both teachers and
peers should focus more on word choice when giving feedback on writing.

Citation
Ruegg, R. (2013). A comparison of lexical feedback on writing received from peers and a teacher. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 2 (1), 25-31. doi: 10.7820/vli.v02.1.ruegg

VLI 2(1): Mizumoto (2013)

Enhancing Self-efficacy in Vocabulary Learning: A Self-regulated Learning Approach
Atsushi Mizumoto
Kansai University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v02.1.mizumoto
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Abstract
The current study aimed to explore the effects of integrating a selfregulated
learning approach on self-efficacy in vocabulary learning. A
group of 115 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners from a
university in Japan participated in this longitudinal study. The participants
were assigned as the treatment group, the contrast group 1, and the
contrast group 2. Only the treatment group received the intervention based
on the self-regulated learning approach. The participants completed a
questionnaire on self-efficacy in vocabulary learning three times and a
vocabulary test twice. Multilevel analysis of change was employed to
examine the trajectories of change in the participants’ self-efficacy over the
measurement occasions. The gain scores in the vocabulary test were
submitted to analysis of variance. The results showed that the treatment
group showed a steady increase in self-efficacy and vocabulary knowledge
compared with the other two contrast groups. The findings from the
current study provide empirical evidence suggesting that through a selfregulated
learning approach, it might be possible to enhance self-efficacy,
which in turn may contribute to the development of vocabulary knowledge.

Citation
Mizumoto, A. (2013). Enhancing self-efficacy in vocabulary learning: A self-regulated learning approach. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 2 (1), 15-24. doi: 10.7820/vli.v02.1.mizumoto

VLI 2(1): Masson (2013)

How L1 Loanwords Can Create a False Sense of Familiarity with L2 Vocabulary Meaning and Usage
Marie-Emilie Masson
Kyushu Sangyo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v02.1.masson
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Abstract
Almost 50% of high-frequency English (L2) words have Japanese
cognates in the form of loanwords, and depending on cognate type these
are generally considered to be an excellent way to promote vocabulary
retention. However, relatively unexplored is the impact loanword
cognates have on word usage in sentences. This paper will describe the
discrepancies between students’ perceived knowledge and actual knowledge
of meaning and usage of English words with Japanese cognates. The
results suggest that cognates which are usually more difficult for students
to retain, such as distant false friends (because they have undergone a
semantic shift), are not the only source of difficulty in terms of word
usage. In addition to this, it appears loanword cognates that students
consider themselves to know can create a false sense of familiarity with
L2 meaning and usage. True cognates and convergent cognates, which are
generally considered the easiest to recall meaning of, showed the most
discrepancies in terms of accurate word usage.

Citation
Masson, M.-E. (2013). How L1 loanwords can create a false sense of familiarity with L2 vocabulary meaning and usage. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 2 (1), 8-14. doi: 10.7820/vli.v02.1.masson

VLI 2(1): Ishii (2013)

Reexamining Semantic Clustering: Insight from Memory Models
Tomoko Ishii
Seikei University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v02.1.ishii
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Abstract
It has been repeatedly argued that semantically related words should not
be learned together because learning is impeded. However, the results of
past studies are not uniform, some providing favorable results for
semantic clustering, and some seem to suggest different types of similarity
affect memory in different ways. The types of similarity that truly cause
the problem therefore need to be examined more carefully. Focusing on
visual features, which are commonly observed across different models of
working memory, a study was conducted to examine if learners have
difficulty memorizing a group of words that describe items with common
physical features. The study compared the learning of three types of word
sets: unrelated, semantically related, and physically related. While no
statistically significant difference was observed between semantically
related and unrelated sets, the scores for physically related sets were
significantly lower than those for the other two types. This suggests the
possibility that the impeding effect of semantic clustering reported in the
past could be partly due to the precise nature of semantically similar
words, which sometimes share visual features.

Citation
Reexamining semantic clustering: Insight from memory models. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 2 (1), 1-7. doi: 10.7820/vli.v02.1.ishii

VLI 1(1): Iso (2012)

Examining the Validity of the Lexical Access Time Test (LEXATT2)
Tatsuo Iso
Reitaku University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.iso
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the validity of the Lexical Access Time Test (LEXATT2). The first step was to examine the test results to determine if it was able to differentiate between participants with different English proficiency levels. The results were further analyzed to see if longer target words elicited slower lexical access times. The results of the 119 participants indicated promise in that LEXATT2 established an ability to distinguish proficiency levels to some extent. Further, it was found that LEXATT2 elicited slower lexical access time from the participants with lower English proficiency.

Keywords
lexical access; fluent reading; automaticity of lexical access; word recognition; meaning retrieval; lexical access time test; computerized language testing.

Citation
Iso, T.(2012).Examining the validity of the lexical access time test (LEXATT2). Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 7882. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.iso

VLI 1(1): Batty (2012)

Identifying Dimensions of Vocabulary Knowledge in the Word Associates Test
Aaron Batty
Keio University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.batty
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Abstract
Depth of vocabulary knowledge (DVK) (i.e. how much a learner knows about the words he knows) is typically conceptualized as a psychologically multidimensional construct, including various forms of word knowledge. Read’s Word Associates Test (WAT) is the most common test of DVK in the literature, assessing knowledge of words’ synonyms and collocates. Despite the fact that the WAT aims to measure two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, no studies until now have investigated whether these dimensions are psychometrically distinct. The present study seeks to fill that gap. A known-reliable-and-valid WAT developed by David Qian was administered to 530 Japanese university English majors. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to investigate the psychometric dimensionality of the WAT. It was discovered that a bifactor model, wherein the primary explanatory factor is a vocabulary g-factor, with additional, uncorrelated factors for synonym and collocate items, demonstrated the best fit. This finding implies that although these dimensions of DVK may be somewhat distinct, they are largely subsumed by general vocabulary knowledge.

Keywords
vocabulary; depth of vocabulary knowledge; word associates test; multidimensionality; structural equation modeling.

Citation
Batty, A.(2012).Identifying dimensions of vocabulary knowledge in the word associates test. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 7077. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.batty

VLI 1(1): Koizumi (2012)

Relationships Between Text Length and Lexical Diversity Measures: Can We Use Short Texts of Less than 100 Tokens?
Rie Koizumi
Tokiwa University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.koizumi
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Abstract
Lexical diversity (LD) measures have been known to be sensitive to the length of the text, and numerous revised LD measures have been proposed. This study aims to identify LD measures that are least affected by text length and can be used for the analysis of short L2 texts (50-200 tokens). This study compares the type-token ratio, Guiraud index, D, and measure of textual lexical diversity (MTLD) to assess their degree of susceptibility to text length. Spoken texts of 200 tokens from 20 L2 English learners at the lower-intermediate-level were divided into segments of 50 to 200 tokens and the text length impact was examined. It was found that MTLD was least affected by text length, and that it should be used with texts of at least 100 tokens.

Keywords
lexical diversity; text length; type-token ratio; Guiraud index; D; measure of textual lexical diversity (MTLD); speaking performance.

Citation
Koizumi, R.(2012).Relationships between text length and lexical diversity measures: Can we use short texts of less than 100 tokens? Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 6069. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.koizumi

VLI 1(1): Stewart (2012)

A Multiple-Choice Test of Active Vocabulary Knowledge
Jeffrey Stewart
Kyushu Sangyo University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.stewart
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Abstract
Most researchers distinguish between receptive (passive) and productive (active) word knowledge. Most vocabulary tests employed in second language acquisition (SLA), such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) and Vocabulary Size Test (VST), test receptive knowledge. This is unfortunate, as the multiple-choice format employed on most receptive tests inflates estimates of vocabulary size, and there are clear theoretical advantages to focusing instead on productive knowledge, which is associated with greater strength of knowledge as well as written and oral communication skills. This is in large part due to the logistical problems associated with such tests, as the full-word answers given must either be entered online or handmarked. This paper will describe a multiple-choice format test of active vocabulary knowledge, in which learners confirm their knowledge of an English word by selecting its first letter. As there are 25 possible options, odds of guessing the correct answer by chance are reduced to 0.04. Findings of the study include that word difficulty estimates and scores are highly correlated to those of conventional, full-word active tests (0.90), and that test reliability is higher on the proposed format than on that of a receptive test of the same words.

Keywords
vocabulary acquisition; productive vocabulary knowledge; language testing.

Citation
Stewart, J.(2012). A multiple-choice test of active vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 53-59. doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.stewart

VLI 1(1): Mochizuki (2012)

Four Empirical Vocabulary Test Studies in the Three Dimensional Framework
Masamich Mochizuki
Reitaku University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v01.1.mochizuki
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Abstract
In this paper I would like to briefly overview vocabulary testing literature and discuss the four empirical studies conducted by Jeffrey Stewart, Rie Koizumi, Aaron Batty, and Tatsuo Iso, after placing them in the framework of the three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge: size, depth, and lexical accessibility.

Keywords
three dimensions of vocabulary knowledge: size, depth, and lexical accessibility; passive/receptive vocabulary knowledge; active/productive vocabulary knowledge.

Citation
Mochizuki, M.(2012).Four empirical vocabulary test studies in the three dimensional framework. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 1(1), 4452.doi: 10.7820/vli.v01.1.mochizuki