VLI 6(2): Anthony (2017)

Corpus Linguistics and Vocabulary: A Commentary on Four Studies
Laurence Anthony
Waseda University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Anthony
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Abstract
Tools and methods developed in the field of corpus linguistics play an often understated but important role in much of vocabulary research. This article offers a commentary on four vocabulary studies that explicitly reference the use of corpus linguistics in the development of new vocabulary resources, tools, and concepts. First, the article categorizes corpus linguistics research into two distinct areas and then positions the four studies in these areas. Next, the article summarizes the results of the four studies, before making suggestions for strengthening the works from the perspective of mainstream corpus linguistics research. The article concludes with a general comment on the value of the studies as they relate to corpus linguistics and vocabulary research in general.

Citation
Anthony, L. (2017). Corpus linguistics and vocabulary: A commentary on four studies. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 79–87. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Anthony

VLI 6(2): Romanko (2017)

Measuring the Vocabulary Burden of Popular English Songs
Rick Romanko
Wayo Women’s University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Romanko
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Abstract
This study measured the vocabulary burden of popular English songs to determine what vocabulary is needed to understand 95% and 98% of the words in songs. The researcher analyzed the vocabulary in 2,175 songs, which consisted of 678,309 tokens. The results showed that knowledge of the most frequent 2,000 word families and proper nouns and marginal words provided 96.05% coverage, and knowledge of the most frequent 5,000 word families and proper nouns and marginal words provided 98% coverage of the English used in songs in the corpus.

Citation
Romanko, R. (2017). Measuring the vocabulary burden of popular English songs. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 71–78. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Romanko

VLI 6(2): Lyddon (2017)

Discovering Language Properties through Corpus-Based Dictionary Data Analysis
Paul A. Lyddon
Osaka Jogakuin College
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Lyddon
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Abstract
To reveal underlying patterns in real language use, linguists have increasingly come to rely on corpus analyses, involving the evaluation of statistical frequencies in generally sizable bodies of natural linguistic data. However, accessing and analyzing large samples of raw language is neither always practical nor even truly necessary, especially in cases pertaining to structural characteristics. In fact, the requisite data can oftentimes be gleaned from a state-of-the-art (i.e., corpus-based) dictionary. Moreover, given the widespread availability of easily searchable electronic dictionaries nowadays, almost any language teacher or learner can use one to answer a number of these types of queries. This paper illustrates this claim with a step-by-step analysis of corpus-based dictionary data for the purpose of formulating the sound-symbol relations in English words with vowels preceding –gh.

Citation
Lyddon P. A. (2017). Discovering language properties through corpus-based dictionary data analysis. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 61–70. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Lyddon

VLI 6(2): Mizumoto (2017)

Initial Evaluation of AWSuM: A Pilot Study
Atsushi Mizumoto
Kansai University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Mizumoto
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Abstract
This article reports on a pilot study to evaluate usability, effectiveness,
and impact of Academic Word Suggestion Machine (AWSuM), a webbased,
innovative tool, powered by the combination of rhetorical moves
and lexical bundles with an auto-complete feature. Eight L2 writers participated
in the study. Their open-ended comments after using the tool
were qualitatively analyzed and classified in thematic categories. The
results showed that the developed tool brought about beneficial effects
that genre writing pedagogy explicitly aims to achieve. Implications are
discussed in terms of the potential role that a tool like AWSuM could
play in the teaching and learning of technology-enhanced genre writing.

Citation
Mizumoto, A. (2017). Initial evaluation of AWSuM: A pilot study. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 46–51. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Mizumoto

VLI 6(2): Matsuda (2017)

Impact of talker variability on L2 word recognition among Japanese EFL learners
Noriko Matsuda
Aino University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Matsuda
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Abstract
This article is a pilot study investigating auditory word priming in 40 Japanese
learners of English using speeded repetition tasks to measure the impact
of talker changes on second language (L2) word recognition. The results
showed that by focusing more on the perceptual dimension, in single-talker
conditions, word recognition time was statistically significantly shorter and
a perceptual learning effect was seen. However, with talker changes, word
recognition time significantly increased and the repetition effects were nullified.
The results indicate that Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL)
learners have high sensitivity to individual attributes of speech and seem to
need some variations in auditory input for some period of time without any
need for comprehension in order to form robust representations of L2 words.

Citation
Matsuda N. (2017). Impact of talker variability on L2 word recognition among Japanese EFL learners. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 8–22. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Matsuda

VLI 6(2): Larson-Hall (2017)

L2 Lexical Attrition and Vocabulary Re-learning in Three L1 English L2 Japanese Children
Jenifer Larson-Hall
Kitakyushu University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Larson-Hall
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Abstract
In this paper I review the evidence for the role of age in affecting second language attrition, and find it strongly supports a large difference in attrition around a breakpoint of age 8. I propose a Dynamic Attrition Model which posits that attrition sets in immediately upon the loss of contact with a language but the speed of loss differs depending on age. Three children who began their incubation periods at age 6, 8 and 10 are examined when they are re-exposed to Japanese 6 years later. All children showed strong savings rates but large losses to their L2 Japanese.

Citation
Larson-Hall, J. (2017). L2 Lexical attrition and vocabulary re-learning in three L1 English L2 Japanese children. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 1–7. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Larson-Hall

VLI 6(2): Kanazawa (2017)

Emotion-Involved Semantic Processing and L2 Vocabulary Memory: A Micro-Level Emotion Manifesto
Yu Kanazawa
Otemon Gakuin University; Kwansei Gakuin University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Kanazawa
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Introduction
Emotion is a pervasive phenomenon whose pivotal impacts on cognition have been proposed and increasingly acknowledged (e.g., operator effect and “(de-)energizing” effect; cf. Ciompi & Panksepp, 2005; Damasio, 2003; LeDoux, 2012). In accordance with this, second language acquisition (SLA) studies have recently seen an “affective turn” (Pavlenko, 2013) and several theories have been proposed and studies conducted concerning the effect of affect in SLA from such perspectives as motivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011), foreign language anxiety/enjoyment (Dewaele & MacIntyre, 2016), Directed Motivational Currents (Dörnyei, Henry, & Muir, 2016), and emotional intelligence (Gregersen & MacIntyre, 2017; Kanazawa, 2016b).
The purpose of the experiments was to examine whether emotion-involved semantic processing (EmInvSemProc) results in better incidental L2 memory performance compared to other types of semantic processing (viz., a lexical decision task [LDT] for Experiment A and an imageability judgment task [IJT] for Experiment B).

Citation
Kanazawa, Y. (2017). Emotion-involved semantic processing and L2 vocabulary memory: A micro-level emotion manifesto. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 23–30. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Kanazawa

VLI 6(2): Bennett (2017)

Using Cognitive Linguistic Principles to Encourage Production of Metaphorical Vocabulary in Writing
Phil Bennett
Miyazaki International College
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Bennett
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Abstract
Learners in academic English environments face considerable demands
on their lexical knowledge. The problem is more than just the acquisition
of a large vocabulary; they must also develop an awareness of
the range of meanings that words can convey. Academic discourse is
known to make frequent use of metaphorical vocabulary to express
abstract notions. This article reports on a two-semester investigation
into learner production of conventional metaphorical vocabulary in an
anthropology course. Analysis of written output revealed that control
group metaphor use correlated strongly with overall proficiency, but
that experimental group learners responded to the treatment in a more
complex fashion.

Citation
Bennett, P. (2017). Using cognitive linguistic principles to encourage production of metaphorical vocabulary in writing. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 31–39. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Bennett

VLI 6(2): Beglar (2017)

Vocabulary Instruction and Learning: A Commentary on Four Studies
David Beglar
Temple University, Japan Campus
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Beglar
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Abstract
Four papers were presented by Jenifer Larson-Hall, Noriko Matsuda,
Yu Kanazawa, and Phil Bennett. As the discussant, it is my
pleasure to comment on these four interesting studies concerning
language attrition, the effect of a speaker’s voice on the speed of
word recognition, affect and lexical acquisition, and the use of metaphor
in teaching academic vocabulary. A unique aspect of these
papers is their focus on areas in the fields that have received little
attention in the past. This feature makes the studies quite valuable,
as they illuminate aspects of lexical acquisition that are yet to be
understood in any detail.

Citation
Beglar D. (2017). Vocabulary Instruction and Learning: A Commentary on Four Studies. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 40–45. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Beglar

VLI 6(2): Brown (2017)

Coverage-based Frequency Bands: A Proposal
Dale Brown
Kanazawa University
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7820/vli.v06.2.Brown
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Abstract
Second language vocabulary research makes much use of word frequency
lists and their division into bands. In recent years, bands of 1,000 items
have become conventional. However, there does not seem to be any firm
basis or rationale for this. Conventional banding may be questioned since
the utility of words varies greatly depending on frequency, because there
are enormous differences in frequency within higher bands, and because
the reliability of the placement of words in bands becomes progressively
poorer at lower frequency levels. This article suggests an alternative approach:
basing bands on coverage levels. Because of the frequency distribution
of words, this means the highest frequency bands would contain
very few words, while lower frequency bands would contain a great many
words. The article shows how such bands can be constructed and presents
a re-analysis of the results of a vocabulary test designed with conventional
bands in terms of coverage-based bands. This re-analysis produces
a very different profile of learners’ knowledge, and it is argued that the
shape of this profile may be more useful in terms of guiding instruction
in that it gives a clearer indication of which words should be targeted for
a group of learners. It is further argued that the smaller number of words
contained in coverage-based bands at higher frequency levels makes
them a more feasible basis for instruction. The article thus concludes that
coverage-based bands may be a fruitful avenue for researchers to explore.

Citation
Brown, D. (2017). Coverage-based frequency bands: A proposal. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 6 (2), 52–60. doi: 10.7820/vli.v06.2.Brown